1 Only heart disease kills more people than cancer. E. Arias and B.
L. Smith. 2003. “Deaths: preliminary data for 2001.” National
Vital Statistics Reports 51(5), www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/
nvsr51/nvsr51_05.pdf. and R. Davis. 2004. “Cancer stats cite new
danger.” USA Today online edition, Jan 14. See www.usatoday.com/news/health/2004-01-15-cancer-obesity_x.htm.
2 Infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria is one of the primary
factors leading to stomach cancer. J. Parsonnet et al. 1994. “Helicobacter
pylori infection and gastric lymphoma.” N Engl J Med. May 5;330(18):
1267–1271. Methods of storing food may also be a factor. See S.
H. Landis et al. 1999. “Cancer statistics, 1999.” Ca-A Cancer
J Clin. 49(1): 8–31.
“Several reasons may have led to this drop in stomach cancer rates,
such as improved detection and treatment as well as improved dietary
habits, such as eating more fruits, vegetables, and fiber. Many studies
show that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables lowers the risk for many
cancers. But if stomach cancer is not caught early before it has spread,
the prognosis is poor and the disease may be fatal.” (Cleveland
Clinic, “Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer,” www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/1800/
“Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung
cancer, accounting for 68 to 78 percent of lung cancer deaths among
females and 88 to 91 percent of lung cancer deaths among males.”
CDC. 1990. Cigarette smoking–attributable mortality and years
of potential life lost—United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report 42(33): 645–649, reported in CDC and NIH, Healthy
People 2010, www.healthypeople.gov/document/html/volume1/03cancer.htm.
“Unexplained cancer-related health disparities remain among population
subgroups. For example, Blacks and people with low socioeconomic status
have the highest overall rates for both new cancers and deaths.”
National Cancer Institute, 2001 Progress Report, http://progressreport.cancer.gov/highlights.asp?coid517.
3 American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2002, www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/
4 Genomic Health information page, at www.genomichealth.com/oncotype/faq/pat.aspx;
Biospace, CCIS, “The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel
Project (NSABP) and Genomic Health,
Inc. Announce Positive Results from Large-Scale, Prospective Validation
Study to Quantify Breast
Cancer Recurrence in Newly Diagnosed Patients,” www.biospace.com/ccis/news_story.cfm?
5 “10 emerging technologies that will change your world.”
MIT Technology Review, February 2004; www.technologyreview.com/articles/print_version/emerging0204.asp;
H. Brody. “Taming the terahertz.” MIT Technology Review,
June 2003; www.technologyreview.com/articles/innovation40603.asp.
6 “Spotting cancer before it sickens.” Wired News, April
9, 2003; www.wired.com/news/
7 Ibid. See also, T. Parker-Pope. “Ten major advances you’re
likely to see in the coming year.” Wall Street Journal, January
26, 2004; Y. Yu et al. 2004. “Visualization of tumors and metastases
in live animals with bacteria and vaccinia virus encoding light-emitting
proteins.” Nature Biotech. 22(Mar 01): 313–320.
8 See T. J. Key et al. 2004. “Diet, nutrition and the prevention
of cancer.” Public Health Nutr. Feb;7(1A): 187–200.
Yet this view remains controversial. In 2003, the U.S. Preventive Services
Task Force (USPSTF) concluded “that the evidence is insufficient
to recommend for or against the use of supplements of vitamins A, C,
or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for
the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease.” See www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/vitamins/vitaminsrr.htm.
9 Instead of preventing cancer, radiation from mammograms has been identified
as the cause of 3,000–5,000 additional cases of breast cancer
each year. See J. W. Gofman and E. O’Connor. 1999. Radiation from
Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart
Disease: Dose-Response Studies with Physicians per 100,000 Population.
San Francisco: CNR Books.
10 We say there is “often” value in early detection because
many cases of malignancy are already metastasized by the time they can
be detected and their early detection has little predictive value.
11 Take the case of prostate cancer, for example. “Available screening
tests (for example prostate specific antigen) can detect early stage
disease but there is no evidence that clinical outcomes are improved
by early detection. The potential harms of screening 28 million men
older than 50 years include unnecessary interventions for thousands
of men without disease or with clinically insignificant cancer. The
billions of dollars required for this effort could displace resources
away from health care services of proved benefit.” S. H. Woolf.
1994. “Public health perspective: the health policy implications
of screening for prostate cancer.” J Urol. Nov;152(5 Pt 2): 1685–1688.
12 L. A. Koutsky.2002. “A controlled trial of a human papilloma
virus type 16 vaccine.” N Engl J Med. Nov 21;347(21): 1645–1651.
13 O. J. Finn. 2003. “Cancer vaccines: between the idea and the
reality.” Nat Rev Immunol. Aug;3(8): 630–641; R. C. Kennedy
and M. H. Shearer. 2003. “A role for antibodies in tumor immunity.”
Int Rev Immunol. Mar–Apr;22(2): 141–172.
14 E. Jonietz. “DNA drugs.” MIT Technology Review, November
15 “In normal development, [the surface molecule] 5T4 is involved
in helping cells move around in a regulated way” according to
Peter Stern at Cancer Research UK. “In cancer, it’s not
regulated—it’s out of control.” S. Bhattacharya. “Stem
cell mobility linked to cancer’s spread.” NewScientist.com.
October 24, 2003; www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id5ns99994309.
16 Interleukin-12 is not normally produced by cancer cells. “Mount
Sinai School of Medicine conducting clinical trials with gene therapy
for colorectal cancer.” Bio.com, January 22, 2004; www.bio.com/newsfeatures/newsfeatures_research.jhtml?cid5129742418&page51.
17 J. K. Gohagan et al. 2000. “The prostate, lung, colorectal
and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial of the National Cancer Institute:
history, organization, and status.” Control Clin Trials. Dec;21(6
18 National Cancer Institute, “Screening and Testing for Cancer;”
19 For more information about the DR-70 test, see the AMDL, Inc. site;
20 Stanford University Medical Center, Office of Communication &
Public Affairs, “Stanford researchers weigh risks vs. benefits
of self-referred body scanning.” July 29, 2003; http://mednews.
stanford.edu/news_releases_html/2003/julyrelease/scanning.htm. The news
release refers to J. Illes et al. 2003. “Self-referred whole-body
CT imaging: current implications for health care consumers.” Radiology.
21 Quoted in G. Kolata. “Questions grow over usefulness of some
routine cancer tests.” New York Times, December 30, 2001.
22 The only food that cancer cells can eat is sugar, which is another
reason we emphasize avoiding simple sugars in the diet as well as high-glycemic-index
foods that raise blood sugar levels quickly.
23 T. Boehm et al. 1997. “Antiangiogenic therapy of experimental
cancer does not induce acquired drug resistance.” Nature. 390:
24 Angiogenesis Foundation, “Understanding Angiogenesis”.
25 National Cancer Institute, Clinical Trial Results: “Bevacizumab
(Avastin(tm)) Improves Survival in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer”;
With these trials showing benefit in colon cancer, trials are now looking
at Avastatin in the treatment of renal cell cancer, prostate cancer,
non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and many others.
26 J. Perkel. 2002. “Telomeres as the key to cancer.” The
Scientist. 16(11):38; www.the-scientist.com/yr2002/may/profile_020527.html.
27 J. Alam. 2003. “Apoptosis: target for novel drugs.” Trends
in Biotechnology. 21(11): 479–483.
28 There are over 700 gene therapy treatments being tested worldwide.
There have been a number of highly publicized setbacks for some of these
trials in the U.S. and Europe. Shenzhen SiBiono Gene Technologies Co.
has been criticized for commercially releasing Gendicine too early without
sufficiently large human trials. J. Hepeng. “First gene-therapy
medicine commercialized.” Business Weekly, December 9, 2003; www1.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-12/09/content_289867.htm;
“Cancer gene therapy is first to be approved.” NewScientist.com,
November 28, 2003; www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id5ns99994420.
29 S. Bhattacharya. “Deadly spread of cancer halted.” NewScientist.com,
June 5, 2003; www.newscientist.
30 Cancer Research UK press release. “Scientists overpower cancer’s
drug defenses,” February 19, 2004; www.cancerresearchuk.org/news/pressreleases/cancer_drugdefences_19feb04.
31 S. Bhattacharya. “GM blood kills human cancer cells.”
NewScientist.com, April 1, 2003; www.
32 See P. J. Pickhardt et al. 2003. “Computed tomographic virtual
colonoscopy to screen for colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults.”
N Engl J Med. Dec 4;349: 2191–2200; M. M. Morrin and J. T. LaMont.
2003. “Screening virtual colonoscopy—Ready for prime time?”
N Engl J Med. Dec 4;349: 2261–2264.
33 P. B. Cotton et al. 2004. “Computed tomographic colonography
(virtual colonoscopy): a multicenter comparison with standard colonoscopy
for detection of colorectal neoplasia.” JAMA. Apr 14;291(14):
34 P. Lichtenstein et al. 2002. “The Swedish Twin Registry: a
unique resource for clinical, epidemiological and genetic studies.”
J Intern Med. Sep;252(3): 184–205; N. L. Pedersen et al. 2002.
“The Swedish Twin Registry in the third millennium.” Twin
Res. 5(5): 427–432.
35 See, for example, J. D. Hayes and R. C. Strange. 2000. “Glutathione
S-transferase polymorphisms and their biological consequences.”
Pharmacology. Sep;61(3): 154–166.
36 See our Web site Fantastic-Voyage.net for further information on
available genomics tests.
37 Up to 48 percent of the cases of stomach cancer may be due to the
GSTM 1 null polymorphism combined with mutations of the IL-1B and NAT1
genes, as demonstrated by C. A. Gonzalez et al. 2002. “Genetic
susceptibility and gastric cancer risk.” Int J Cancer. Jul 20;100(3):
38 Women often refuse to have the test for a myriad of reasons, such
as concern over insurance coverage for preexisting conditions. “Misuse
of genetic information can have devastating consequences—job loss,
social stigmatization, loss of health and life insurance or inability
to obtain them—and all these must be guarded against whenever
possible.” “Genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer
susceptibility.” DukeMed Magazine, Summer 2001; http://dukemednews.duke.edu/news/controversy.php?id51733.
See also, A. Berchuck and M. G. Muto. 1996. “Status of testing
for genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer.” SCO Issues Fall;16(3);
39 T. Soucci. 2000. “The p53 tumor suppressor gene: from molecular
biology to clinical investigation.” Ann NY Acad Sci. Jun;910:
121–137; discussion 137–139.
40 T. J. Key et al. 2004, op cit.
41 The National Cancer Institute defines a serving as any of the following:
one medium-size fruit (such as apple, orange, banana, pear), 1/2 cup
raw, cooked, canned or frozen fruits or vegetables, 3/4 cup (6 oz.)
100 percent fruit or vegetable juice, 1/2 cup cut-up fruit, 1/2 cup
cooked or canned legumes (beans and peas), 1 cup raw, leafy vegetables
(lettuce, spinach), or 1/4 cup dried fruit (raisins, apricots, mango).
For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s 5
A Day program page: www.5aday.gov.
42 Behavior risk factors surveillance system CD-ROM (1984–1995,
1996, 1998) and public use data tape (2000), National Center for Chronic
Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control
and prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001.
43 C. N. Holick et al. 2002. “Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene,
and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene
cohort study.” Am J Epidemiol. Sep 15;156(6): 536–547.
44 C. La Vecchia et al. 2001. “Nutrition and health: epidemiology
of diet, cancer and cardiovascular disease in Italy.” Nutr Metab
Cardiovasc Dis. Aug;11(4 Suppl): 10–15.
45 A. Trichopoulou et al. 2003. “Adherence to a Mediterranean
diet and survival in a Greek population.” N Engl J Med. Jun 26;348(26):
46 S. Watanabe, S. Uesugi, and Y. Kikuchi. 2002. “Isoflavones
for prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, gynecological problems
and possible immune potentiation.” Biomed Pharmacother. Aug;56(6):
47 Y. C. Wang and U. Bachrach. 2002. “The specific anti-cancer
activity of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).”
Amino Acids. 22(2): 131–143.
48 V. Rice. “University Health Network researchers discover new
class of human stem cells.” University of Toronto news release,
June 8, 2003; www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases?2003-06/uot-uhn060503.php.
49 R. W. Owen et al. 2000. “Olive-oil consumption and health:
the possible role of antioxidants.” Lancet Oncol. Oct;1: 107–112.
50 E. Giovannucci et al. 2002. “Importance of lycopene and tomato
products to prevent prostate cancer. A prospective study of tomato products,
lycopene, and prostate cancer risk.” J Natl Cancer Inst. Mar 6;94(5):
51 O. Warburg. 1956. “On the origin of cancer cells.” Science.
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52 S. Higgenbotham et al. 2004. “Dietary glycemic load and risk
of colorectal cancer in the Women’s Health Study.” J Natl
Cancer Inst. Feb 4;96(3): 229–233. Interestingly, the same researchers
did not find a high-glycemic-load diet to be associated with an increased
risk of breast cancer. S. Higgenbotham et al. 2004. “Dietary glycemic
load and breast cancer risk in the Women’s Health Study.”
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Jan;13(1): 65–70.
53 D. S. Michaud et al. 2002. “Dietary sugar, glycemic load, and
pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective study.” J Natl Cancer
Inst. Sep 4;94(17): 1293–1300.
54 American Cancer Society. “Fitting in Fitness.” www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/
55 Much of the concern over sunlight exposure seems misdirected. While
excessive exposure to bright sunlight will damage skin and increase
the incidence of skin cancer, moderate exposure to sunlight may be cancer
protective, as shown in the study by W. B. Grant. 2002. “An estimate
of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of
solar ultraviolet-B radiation.” Cancer. Mar 15;94(6): 1867–1875.
56 A. P. Albino et al. 2000. “Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
of melanoma cells by docosahexaneoic acid: association with decreased
pRb phosphorylation.” Cancer Res. Aug 1;60(15): 4139–4145.
57 L. Settimi et al. 2001. “Cancer risk among male farmers: a
multi-site case-control study.” Int J Occup Med Environ Health.
58 These results come from the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey (NHANES). The report, “Prevalence of Overweight
and Obesity Among Adults: United States, 1999–2000,” is
available at the CDC Web site www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/
obese/obse99.htm. See also K. M. Flegal et al. 2002. “Prevalence
and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999–2000.” JAMA.
59 E. E. Calle et al. 2003. “Overweight, obesity, and mortality
from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults.”
N Engl J Med. Apr 24;348(17): 1625–1638.
60 R. A. Freitas Jr. 2002. “The future of nanofabrication and
molecular scale devices in nanomedicine.” Studies in Health Technology
and Informatics. 80: 45–59.
61 X. H. Gao et al. 2002. “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive
biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding.” Journal
of Biomedical Optics. 7(4): 532–537.
62 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center press release. “Intel
and Fred Hutchinson to explore the use of nanotechnology tools for early
disease detection.” Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. October
23, 2003; www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-10/fhcr-iaf102303.php.
63 “Optical biopsies on horizon using noninvasive biomedical imaging
technique developed by Cornell-Harvard group.” Cornell News Service,
June 11, 2003; www.news.cornell.edu/releases/
64 M. Kelly. “Startups seek perfect particles to search and destroy
cancer.” Small Times, April 18, 2003; www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id55867.
66 J. Couzin. “Nanoparticles Cut Tumors’ Supply Lines,”
Science, June 27, 2002; http://sciencenow.
67 E. Cameron and L. Pauling. 1992. Cancer and Vitamin C: A Discussion
of the Nature, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment of Cancer with Special
Reference to the Value of Vitamin C. Philadelphia: Camino Books.
68 Q. S. Zheng and R. L. Zheng. 2002. “Effects of ascorbic acid
and sodium selenite on growth and redifferentiation in human hepatoma
cells and its mechanisms.” Pharmazie. Apr;57(4): 265–269.
69 A. J. Duffield-Lillico et al. 2002. “Baseline characteristics
and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a
randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention
of Cancer Trial.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Jul;11(7):
70 O. Portakal et al. 2000. “Coenzyme Q10 concentrations and antioxidant
status in tissues of breast cancer patients.” Clin Biochem. Jun;33(4):
71 S. P. Verma et al. 1997. “Curcumin and genistein, plant natural
products, show synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of human
breast cancer MCF-7 cells induced by estrogenic pesticides.” Biochem
Biphy Res Comm. 233: 692–696.
72 R. Rashmi, T. R. Santhosh Kumar, and D. Karunagaran. 2003. “Human
colon cancer cells differ in their sensitivity to curcumin-induced apoptosis
and heat shock protects them by inhibiting the release of apoptosis-inducting
factor and caspases.” FEBS Lett. Mar 13;538(1-3): 19–24;
T. Kawamori et al. 1999. “Chemopreventive effect of curcumin,
a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression
stages of colon cancer.” Cancer Res. 59: 597–601.
73 R. A. Freitas Jr. “Robots in the bloodstream: the promise of
nanomedicine.” KurzweilAI.net, February 26, 2002; www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main5/articles/art0410.html.
74 R. Smith. “Lung cancer cluster bombs created by researchers.”
Medical News Today, January 31, 2004; www.medicalnewstoday.com/index.php?newsid55604.
75 J. Mason. “Coatings and arrays help put medication where it’s
needed.” Small Times, June 27, 2003; www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id56288.
76 J. Gorman. “Buckymedicine: Coming soon to a pharmacy near you?”
Science News, July 13, 2002; www.sciencenews.org/20020713/bob10.asp.
77 D. Penman. “Carbon nanotubes show drug delivery promise.”
NewScientist.com, December 16, 2003; www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id5ns99994485.
78 M. R. McDevitt et al. 2001. “Tumor Therapy with Targeted Atomic
Nanogenerators.” Science. Nov 16;294(5546): 1537–1540.
79 “Nanoprobe to be developed for a ‘Fantastic Voyage’
in the human body, finding and treating deadly tumors.” Today@UCI,
May 8, 2003; http://today.uci.edu/news/release_detail.asp?key5995.
80 “Lasers operate inside single cells.” Nature Science
Update, October 6, 2003; www.nature.com/
81 “Microbeams have big impact on cancer cells.” Reuters,
December 2, 2003; www.cnn.com/
82 A. Salkever. “How High Tech Is Operating on Medicine.”
Business Week, October 15, 2002; www.businessweek.com/technology/content/oct2002/tc20021015_8842.htm.
83 R. A. Freitas Jr., op cit.
84 A. Panzer and M. Viljoen. 1997. “The validity of melatonin
as an oncostatic agent.” J Pineal Res. May;22(4):184–202.
85 S. Cos and E. J. Sanchez-Barcelo. 2000. “Melatonin, experimental
basis for a possible application in breast cancer prevention and treatment.”
Histol Histopathol. Apr;15(2): 637–647.
86 M. Eichholzer et al. 2001. “Folate and the risk of colorectal,
breast and cervix cancer: the epidemiological evidence.” Swiss
Med Wkly. Sep 22;131(37–38): 539–549.
87 H. Tapiero et al. 2002. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
and eicosanoids in human health and pathologies.” Biomed Pharmacother.
88 J. Virtamo et al. 2003. “Incidence of cancer and mortality
following alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a postintervention
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89 M. Caraballoso et al. 2003. “Drugs for preventing lung cancer
in healthy people.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2):CD002141;
A. Arora, C. A. Willhite, and D. C. Liebler. 2001. “Interactions
of beta-carotene and cigarette smoke in human bronchial epithelial cells.”
Carcinogenesis. Aug;22(8): 1173–1178.
1 You can also use the “Life Expectancy Calculator” I used
to calculate how long you might expect to live. It may be found at http://gosset.wharton.upenn.edu/~foster/mortality/perl/CalcForm.html.
2 Anne Collins’s Web site, “Ideal weight for men,”
3 See Fantastic-Voyage.net.
4 The Ray & Terry Meal Replacement Shake is available at www.RayandTerry.com.
1 See www.lloydwatts.com and the site of his company www.audience-inc.com.
The tagline on the audience site is “We let machines hear.”
2 The University of Texas cerebellum simulation included 10,000 granule
cells, 900 Golgi cells, 500 mossy fiber cells, 20 Purkinje cells, and
6 nucleus cells.
J. L. Raymond et al. 1996. “The cerebellum: a neuronal learning
machine?” Science. 272: 1126–1131; J. J. Kim and R. F. Thompson.
1997. “Cerebellar circuits and synaptic mechanisms involved in
classical eyeblink conditioning.” Trends Neuroscience. 20: 188–191;
J. F. Medina et al. 2000. “Timing mechanisms in the cerebellum:
testing predictions of a large-scale computer simulation.” Journal
Neuroscience. 20: 5516–5525; D. V. Buonomano and M. D. Mauk. 1994.
“Neural network model of the cerebellum: temporal discrimination
and the timing of motor responses.” Neural Computation. 6: 38–55.
3 B. Fischl. 2000. “Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral
cortex from magnetic resonance images.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.
Sep 26;97(20): 11050–11055.
4 G. Huang. “Mind-machine merger.” MIT Technology Review,
May 2003; www.technologyreview.com/
5 Ibid. In 2004, a research team plans to have a monkey in St. Louis
control a robot in Ann Arbor as it moves through an obstacle course.
The monkey will watch the robot’s movements on a screen, and the
monkey’s commands and feedback from the robot will be sent via
the Internet. This is an early step toward remote human control of robots
by thought alone. See K. Philipkoski. “Transforming thoughts into
deeds.” Wired News, January 14, 2004; www.wired.com/news/medtech/0,1286,61889,00.html;
Reuters. “Monkey thinks, makes his moves.” Wired News, October
13, 2003; www.wired.com/news/medtech/
6 The BrainBrowser Internet software is under development at Georgia
State University. “When a user focuses his attention on a button,
it becomes highlighted, and when the user successfully focuses on clicking
the button, it emits a low tone.” “Browser boosts brain
interface.” MIT Technology Review, May 22, 2003; www.technologyreview.com/articles/rnb_052203.asp?p51;
see also R. Brooks. “Toward a brain-Internet link.” MIT
Technology Review, November 2003; www.technology.review.com/articles/print_version/brooks1103.asp.
7 “Microchip promises smart artificial arms.” BBC News,
June 15, 2003; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2975828.stm.
8 J. Hogan. “Synapse chip taps into brain chemistry.” NewScientist.com,
March 24, 2003; www.
9 D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel. 1965. “Binocular interaction in
striate cortex of kittens reared with artificial squint.” Journal
of Neurophysiology. 28(6): 1041–1059.
10 M. A. Packer et al. 2003. “Nitric oxide negatively regulates
mammalian adult neurogenesis.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Aug 5;100(16):
11 C. Lie Dieter et al. “Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain: New
Strategies for CNS Diseases.” In Annual Reviews of Pharmacology
and Toxicology (in press).
12 “Bat spit drug aids stroke victims.” BBC News, February
6, 2004; http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/health/3465419.stm.
13 L. Spinney. 2004. “Tea strainer in the neck ‘stops strokes.’”
New Scientist. 181(2432): 12.
14 “Neurologists create a font of human nerve cells.” Science
Daily, adapted from a University of Rochester news release, February
16, 2004; www.sciencedaily.com/print.php?url5/
15 S. Westphal. “Re-implanted stem cells tackle Parkinson’s.”
NewScientist.com, April 8, 2002; www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id5ns99992139.
16 G. Stix. 2003. “Ultimate self-improvement.” Sci Amer.
17 E. Jonietz. “7 hot projects.” MIT Technology Review,
December–January 2004; www.techologyreview.
18 “Key advance reported in regenerating nerve fibers.”
Science Daily, based on news release from Children’s Hospital
Boston, February 18, 2004; www.sciencedaily.com/print.php?url-/
releases/2004/02/040218075713.htm; D. Fischer, Z. He, and L. I. Benowtiz.
2004. “Counteracting the Nogo receptor enhances optic nerve regeneration
if retinal ganglion cells are in an active growth state.” J Neurosci.
Feb 18;24(7): 1646–1651. See also, S. Seethaler. 2004. “Scientists
discover new gene essential for the development of normal brain connections
resulting from sensory input.” UCSD news release; http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/newsreel/science/screst.asp.
19 R. Dotinga. “Cool new ways to save brains.” Wired News,
Feb. 10, 2004; www.wired.com/
20 One fRMI research group claims to be able to use fMRI to catch “a
word or concept as it forms itself in the brain.” Marcel Just
at Carnegie Mellon University has run tests on volunteers using a small
number of concepts. “We have 12 categories and can determine which
of the 12 the subjects are thinking of with 80 to 90 percent accuracy.”
P. Ross. 2003. “Mind readers.” Sci Amer. Sept: 77.
21 fMRI image of Ray Kurzweil’s brain is courtesy of Inc. Magazine,
“Your Brain on Innovation,” by T. Singer, September 2002.
22 Buddhist monks have also shown changes in brain activity when they
were asked to “induce a state of compassion in themselves.”
C. Newton. “Meditation and the brain.” MIT Technology Review,
February 2004; www.technologyreview.com/articles/print_version/newton0204.asp;
T. Singer. “The Innovation Factor: Your Brain on Innovation.”
Inc. Magazine, September 2002.
23 R. E. Callaway and R. Yuste. (The Salk Institute for Biological Studies,
Systems Neurobiology Laboratory). 2002. “Stimulating Neurons with
Light,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiology. October 1; 12(5): 587.
24 B. L. Sabatini and K. Svoboda. 2000. “Analysis of calcium channels
in single spines using optical fluctuation analysis.” Nature.
25 J. L. Etnier and D. M. Landers. 1995. “Brain Function and Exercise:
Current Perspectives.” Sports Medicine. 19(2): 81–85.
26 “Direct brain-to-brain communication and the transfer of minds
between bodies are among the advances forecast in a recent report by
the U.S. National Science Foundation and Department of Commerce.”
G. Brumfiel. 2002. “Futurists predict body swaps for planet hops.”
Nature. Jul 25;418: 359.
Deep brain stimulation, by which electric current from implanted electrodes
influences brain function, is one possible neural implant. See A. Abbott.
2002. “Brain implants show promise against obsessive disorder.”
Nature. Oct 17;419: 658; B. Nuttin et al. 1999. “Electrical stimulation
in anterior limbs of internal capsules in patients with obsessive-compulsive
disorder.” Lancet. Oct 30;354(9189): 1526.
27 R. S. Hong et al. 2003. “Dynamic range enhancement for cochlear
implants.” Otol Neurotol. Jul;24(4): 590–595; R. S. Tyler
et al. 2002. “Three-month results with bilateral cochlear implants.”
Ear Hear. Feb;23(1 Suppl): 80S–89S.
28 See the Retinal Implant Project Web site (www.rle.mit.edu/retinaweb/),
which contains a range of resources including recent papers. Here is
one such recent paper from the team: R. J. Jensen et al. 2003. “Thresholds
for activation of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with an ultrafine, extracellular
microelectrode.” Invest Ophthalmal Vis Sci. Aug;44(8): 3533–3543.
29 The FDA approved the Medtronic implant for this purpose in 1997 for
only one side of the brain; it was approved for both sides of the brain
on January 14, 2002. S. Snider. “FDA approves expanded use of
brain implant for Parkinson’s disease.” U.S. Food and Drug
Administration FDA Talk Paper, January 14, 2002; www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2002/ANS01130.html.
30 Medtronic also makes an implant for cerebral palsy. See S. Hart.
“Brain implant quells tremors.” ABCNews.com, December 23,
1997; http:more.abcnews.go.com/sections/living/brainstim1223. Also see
the Medtronic site, www.medtronic.com.
31 This prosthesis, already 10 years in development, would perform the
short-term memory tasks of the hippocampus rather than simply stimulating
brain activity. To develop it, the developers had to “devise a
mathematical model of how the hippocampus performs under all possible
conditions, build that model into a silicon chip, and then interface
the chip with the brain.” D. Graham-Rowe. 2003. “The world’s
first brain prosthesis revealed.” NewScientist.com 177(2386):
32 G. Zeck and P. Fromherz. 2001. “Noninvasive neuroelectronic
interfacing with synaptically connected snail neurons immobilized on
a semiconductor chip.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Aug 28;98(18):
33 Quantum dots are nanosize crystals based on photosensitive semiconductor
materials that detect photons or fluoresce (light up) in specific colors
based on their size. See R. C. Johnson. “Scientists activate neurons
with quantum dots.” EE Times, December 6, 2001; www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20011204S0068.
34 M. George. 2003. “Stimulating the brain.” Sci Amer. Sept:
67–73; F. M. Mottagy et al. 1999. “Facilitation of picture
naming after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.” Neurology.
35 S. Pridmore et al. 2000. “Comparison of unlimited numbers of
rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and ECT treatment sessions
in major depressive episode.” Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. Jun;
3(2): 129–134; www.wireheading.com/rtms/.
36 E. Stockstad. 2001. “New hints into the biological basis of
autism.” Science. 294: 34–37.
37 D. J. Gerber et al. 2003. “Evidence for association of schizophrenia
with genetic variation in the 8p21.3 gene, PPP3CC, encoding the calcineurin
gamma subunit.” PNAS. 100: 8993–8998.
38 J. S. Rhodes et al. 2003. “Exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis
to high levels but does not improve spatial learning in mice bred for
increased voluntary wheel running.” Behav Neurosci. Oct;117(5):
39 B. Draganski et al. 2004. “Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey
matter induced by training.” Nature. Jan;427: 311–312.
40 D. F. Hultsch et al. 1999. “Use it or lose it: engaged lifestyle
as a buffer of cognitive decline in aging?” Psychol Agin. Jun;14(2):
41 E. P. Noble. 2000. “Addiction and its reward process through
polymorphisms of the D2 dopamine receptor gene: a review.” Eur
Psychiatry. Mar; 15(2): 79–89.
42 F. H. Gage. 2003. “Brain: Repair yourself.” Sci Amer.
43 M. A. McDaneil. 2003. “‘Brain-specific nutrients: a memory
cure?” Nutrition. Nov–Dec; (11–12): 957–75.
44 J. Polich. 2001. “Cognitive effects of a ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine
compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention
and memory.” Hum Psychopharmacol. Jul;16(5): 409–416.
45 P. Bönöczk et al. 2000. “Role of sodium channel inhibition
in neuroprotection: effect of vinpocetine.” Brain Res. Bull. 53(3):
245–254; S. A. Erdo et al. 1996. “Vincamine and vincanol
are potent blockers of voltage-gated Na channels.” Eur J Pharmacol.
Oct 24;314(1–2): 69–73; R. Balestreri, L. Fontana, and F.
Astengo. 1987. “A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of
the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients
with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction.” J Am Geriatr
Soc. May;35(5): 425–430.
46 M. Furushiro et al. 1997. “Effects of administration of soybean
lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning
of passive avoidance in mice.” Jpn J Pharmacol. Dec;75(4): 447–450.
47 E. H. Sharman et al. 2002. “Reversal of biochemical and behavioral
parameters of brain aging by melatonin and acetyl L-carnitine.”
Brain Res. Dec 13;957(2): 223–230.
48 “Researchers at the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute found significant
improvement in verbal recall among a group of people with age-associated
memory impairment who took the herbal supplement ginkgo biloba for six
months when compared with a group that received a placebo.” R.
Champeau. “UCLA researchers find ginkgo biloba may help improve
memory.” UCLA news release, November 10, 2003; www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-11/uoc--urf111003.php.
See also, R. W. Stackman et al. 2003. “Prevention of age-related
spatial memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s
disease by chronic ginkgo biloba treatment.” Exp Neurol. Nov;184(1):
49 J. M. Bourre et al. 1991. “Essentiality of n-3 fatty acids
for brain structure and function.” World Rev Nutr Diet. 66: 103–117.
50 D. S. Heron et al. 1980. “Lipid fluidity markedly modulates
the binding of serotonin to mouse brain membranes.” Proc Natl
Acad Sci. 77: 7463–7467.
51 A. P. Simopoulos. 2001. “Evolutionary aspects of diet and essential
fatty acids.” World Rev Nutr Diet. 88: 18–27; A. P. Simopoulos,
A. Leaf, and N. Salem. 1999. “Workshop on the essentiality of
and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.”
J Am Coll Nutr. 18: 487–489.
52 There is not universal agreement about the optimal ratio of omega-6
to omega-3 fatty acid consumption. Dr. Yehuda et al. from Israel feels
that a 4:1 ratio is optimal. See S. Yehuda et al. 2002. “The role
of polyunsaturated fatty acids in restoring the aging neuronal membrane.”
Neurobiol Aging. Sep–Oct;23(5): 843–853.
53 E. Nemets et al. 2002. “Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance
medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder.”
Am J Psychiatry. 159: 477–479; L. B. Marangell et al. 2003. “A
double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaneoic
acid in the treatment of major depression.” Am J Psychiatry. 160:
54 S. Y. Chung et al. 1995. “Administration of phosphatidylcholine
increases brain acetylcholine concentration and improves memory in dementia
mice.” J Nutr. Jun;125(6): 1484–1489.
55 S. L. Ladd et al. 1993. “Effect of phosphatidylcholine on explicit
memory.” Clin Neuropharmacol. Dec;16(6): 540–549.
56 “Memory is a biological process that can be manipulated by
modern biology like anything else. Not only can you disrupt it, you
can improve it,” according to Timothy Tully of Helicon Therapeutics.
Another founder of memory research, Nobel laureate Eric Kandel, has
explored memory using a marine snail model. Some of the nerve cells
in the Aplysia slug are “big enough to be seen with the naked
eye.” R. Langreth. “Viagra for the brain.” Forbes.com,
February 4, 2002; www.forbes.com/forbes/2002/0202/046_print.html.
57 F. Fagnani et al. 2004. “Donepezil for the treatment of mild
to moderate Alzheimer’s disease in France: the economic implications.”
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 17(1–2): 5–13; K. R. Krishnan
et al. 2003. “Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects
of donepezil on neuronal markers and hippocampal volumes in Alzheimer’s
disease.” Am J Psychiatry. Nov;160(11): 2003–2011.
1 N. Carvalhaes-Neto et al. 2002. “Urinary free cortisol is similar
in older and younger women.” Exp Aging Res. Apr–Jun;28(2):
163–168; E. Beale et al. 2002. “Changes in serum cortisol
with age in critically ill patients.” Gerontology. Mar–Apr;48(2):
2 R. Sapolsky. 1998. Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers. New York: W.
3 D. S. Khalsa and C. Stauth. 1997. Brain Longevity. New York: Warner
4 E. Ferrari et al. 2001. “Age-related changes of the adrenal
secretory pattern: possible role in pathological brain aging.”
Brain Res Rev. Nov;37(1–3): 294–300; E. Ferrari et al. 2001.
“Age-related changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis:
pathophysiological correlates.” Eur J Endocrinol. Apr;144(4):
5 For information on this test, see Fantastic-Voyage.net.
6 According to one study, “The physiological role of dehydroepiandrosterone
(DHEA) and its sulphated ester DHEA(S) has been studied for nearly 2
decades and still eludes final clarification.” The authors also
suggest that the availability of the supplement is “hampering
the rigorous scientific evaluation of its potential.” M. Racchi,
C. Balduzzi, and E. Corsini. 2003. “Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
and the aging brain: flipping a coin in the ‘fountain of youth.’”
CNS Drug Rev Spring;9(1): 21–40. See also M. Boudarene and J.
J. Legros. 2002. “Study of the stress response: role of anxiety,
cortisol and DHEAs.” Encephale. Mar–Apr;28(2): 139–146.
7 S. Shibata. 2000. “A drug over the millennia: pharmacognosy,
chemistry, and pharmacology of licorice.” Yakugaku Zasshi. Oct;120(10):
8 B. Singh et al. 2001. “Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free
aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dun.” Phytother
Res. Jun;15(4): 311–318.
9 Barry Sears has long been preaching the gospel of the hazards of cortisol
and insulin. See The Anti-Aging Zone. New York: HarperCollins, 1999,
11 P. Zimmet and S. Baba. 1990. “Central obesity, glucose intolerance
and other cardiovascular disease risk factors: an old syndrome rediscovered.”
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 10(Suppl 1): S167–171.
12 J. Nandi et al. 2002. “Central mechanisms involved with catabolism.”
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. Jul;5(4): 407–418.
13 According to one study, “Insulin resistance is an important
risk factor for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Our results
suggest that genetic factors, intrauterine environment, early childhood,
and adult environmental factors are all relevant in determining adult
insulin resistance.” D. A. Lawlor, G. Smith, and S. Ebrahim. 2003.
“Life course influences on insulin resistance: findings from the
British Women’s Heart and Health Study.” Diabetes Care.
See also, J. P. Despres et al. 1996. “Hyperinsulinemia as an independent
risk factor for ischemic heart disease.” N Engl J Med. Apr 11;334(15):
14 W. Regelson and C. Colman. 1996. The Super Hormone Promise. New York:
Simon and Schuster.
15 W. Leowattana. 2001. “DHEA(S): the fountain of youth.”
J Med Assoc Thai. Oct;84(Suppl 2): S605–612.
16 J. A. Lemon, D. R. Boreham, and C. D. Rollo. 2003. “A dietary
supplement abolishes age-related cognitive decline in transgenic mice
expressing elevated free radical processes.” Exp Biol Med. 228:
800–810; R. N. Butler et al. 2002. “Is there an anti-aging
medicine?” Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci
17 E. Barrett-Connor, K. T. Khaw, and S. S. Yen. 1986. “A prospective
study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, mortality, and cardiovascular
disease.” N Engl J Med. Dec 11;315(24): 1519–1524.
18 R. H. Straub et al. 2002. “Dehydroepiandrosterone in relation
to other adrenal hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease
state compared with chronic inflammatory disease: role of interleukin-6
and tumour necrosis factor.” Eur J Endocrinol. Mar;146(3): 365–374.
19 W. Regelson. 1985. “Vitamin A, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
and 5' nucleotidase: regulatory factors in tumor growth.” Cancer
Invest. 3(4): 407–409.
20 A. H. Young, P. Gallagher, and R. J. Porter. 2002. “Elevation
of the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in drug-free depressed
patients.” Am J Psychiatry. Jul;159(7): 1237–1239.
21 According to one study, “Increases in mental and physical sexual
arousal ratings significantly increased in response to an acute dose
of DHEA in postmenopausal women.” L. Hackbert and J. R. Heiman.
2002. “Acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effects on sexual arousal
in postmenopausal women.” J Women’s Health Gend Based Med.
See also R. F. Spark. 2002. “Dehydroepiandrosterone: a springboard
hormone for female sexuality.” Fertil Steril. Apr;77(Suppl 4):
22 W. Leowattana, op cit.
23 D. Rudman et al. 1990. “Effects of human growth hormone in
men over 60 years old.” N Engl J Med. Jul 5;323(1): 1–6.
24 At www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, search the PubMed database for “growth
hormone” to see these results.
25 A. Vermeulin. 2002. “Aging, hormones, body composition, metabolic
effects.” World J Urol. May;20(1): 23–27.
26 R. D. Murray et al. 2002. “Low-dose GH replacement improves
the adverse lipid profile associated with the adult GH deficiency syndrome.”
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Apr;56(4): 525–532.
27 A. M. Ahmad et al. 2002. “Effects of GH replacement on 24-h
ambulatory blood pressure and its circadian rhythm in adult GH deficiency.”
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Apr;56(4): 431–437.
28 J. Svensson et al. 2002. “Effects of seven years of GH-replacement
therapy on insulin sensitivity in GH-deficient adults.” J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. May;87(5): 2121–2127.
29 D. E. Cummings and G. R. Merriam. 1999. “Age-related changes
in growth hormone secretion: should the somatopause be treated?”
Semin Reprod Endocrinol. 17(4): 311–325.
Research is also being conducted on GH treatment in adults worldwide.
See, for example, Y. B. Sverrisdottir et al. 2003. “The effect
of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on sympathetic nerve hyperactivity
in hypopituitary adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover,
short-term trial followed by long-term open GH replacement in hypopituitary
adults.” J Hypertens. Oct;21(10): 1905–1914.
30 Other points to consider: this study utilized the “high-dose
low-frequency” GH injection protocol. Most anti-aging physicians
recommend “low-dose high-frequency” GH therapy to reduce
side effects. Also, artificial, not bio-identical forms of estrogen,
progestin, and testosterone were used. See M. R. Blackman et al. 2002.
“Growth hormone and sex steroid administration in healthy aged
women and men.” JAMA. 288: 2282–2292.
31 M. Shim and P. Cohen. 1999. “IGFs and human cancer: implications
regarding the risk of growth hormone therapy.” Horm Res. 51(Suppl
32 A. Beentjes et al. 2000. “One year growth hormone replacement
therapy does not alter colonic epithelial cell proliferation in growth
hormone deficient adults.” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Apr;52(4): 457–462
and M. Letsch et al. 2003. “Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
antagonists inhibit the proliferation of androgen-dependent and -independent
prostate cancers.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Feb 4;100(3): 1250–1255;
M. H. Torosian. 1993. “Growth hormone and prostate cancer growth
and metastasis in tumor-bearing animals.” J Pediatr Endocrinol.
33 J. R. Stout. 2002. “Amino acids and growth hormone manipulation.”
Nutrition. July–Aug;18(7–8): 683–684; R. Savine and
P. H. Sonksen. 1999. “Is the somatopause an indication for growth
hormone replacement?” J Endocrinol Invest. 22(5 Suppl): 142–149.
34 A. J. Morales et al. 1998. “The effect of six months treatment
with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating
sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men
and women.” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Oct;49(4): 421–432.
35 D. Leger et al. 2004. “Nocturnal 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion
in insomnia and its relation to the response to melatonin replacement
therapy.” Am J Med. Jan 15;116: 91–95.
36 Studies of women who work night shifts have been used to explore
the role of melatonin. The implications of the results, which showed
an increase in risk, “‘extend beyond women who work at night’
. . . ‘Women in developing countries have one-fifth the risk of
breast cancer compared to women in industrialized nations’ . .
. It is possible that exposure to more light at night, a common phenomenon
in industrialized nations, may account for increased cancer risk in
women. ‘This has implications that are independent of shift work.’”
M. T. Willis. 2001. “Light at night,” ABCNews.com (abcnews.go.com/sections/
living/DailyNews/breastcancer011016.html). See E. Schernhammer et al.
2003. “Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the Nurses’
Health Study.” JNCI. Jun 4:95(11): 825–828.
See also Y. Touitou. 2001. “Human aging and melatonin. Clinical
relevance.” Exp Gerontol. Jul;36(7): 1083–1100; F. Fraschini
et al. 1998. “Melatonin involvement in immunity and cancer.”
Biol Signals. Jan;7(1): 61–72.
1 It is interesting that in the rush to “level the playing field”
in the name of sexual equality, many physicians seem to have lost sight
of the fact that there are, nevertheless, major physical differences
between men and women. Recent research suggests that gender must be
taken into account when many types of drugs and other therapies are
used. There are significant differences between men and women in the
function of their brains, hearts, lungs, and immune and digestive systems,
in addition to their obvious differences in reproductive systems. For
more information, see M. J. Legato. 2002. Eve’s Rib: The New Science
of Gender-Specific Medicine and How It Can Save Your Life. New York:
2 BERT isn’t really new, but has been around for decades. It is
now becoming more widely known, thanks to popular books such as Suzanne
Somers’s The Sexy Years. 2004. New York: Crown.
3 Interestingly, the makers of Premarin seem proud of this fact and
promote Premarin as containing “estrogens obtained exclusively
from natural sources,” even though these natural sources are pregnant
4 V. W. Pinn et al. 2002. NIH Research and Other Efforts Related to
the Menopausal Transition. April 22. Bethesda, Maryland: Office of Research
on Women’s Health/National Institutes of Health (www4.od.nih.gov/orwh/MenopauseRpt4-02.pdf).
5 A. Vashisht et al. 2001. “Prevalence of and satisfaction with
complementary therapies and hormone replacement therapy in a specialist
menopause clinic.” Climacteric. Sep;4(3): 250–256. See also
S. L. Nand et al. 1998. “Menopausal symptom control and side-effects
on continuous estrone sulfate and three doses of medroxyprogesterone
acetate. Ogen/Provera Study Group.” Climacteric. Sep;1(3): 211–218.
6 The lack of consensus is not due to lack of effort. Several trials
are currently under way or have recently concluded, which attempt to
provide better guidance for menopausal women. The main studies include
the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin
Intervention (PEPI) Trial, the Heart and Estrogen-Progestin Replacement
Study (HERS), the Women’s International Study of long Duration
Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM), and the Million Women Study.
7 For an interesting discussion of the types of problems faced by today’s
clinicians in deciding what types of women and what risk factors are
amenable to HRT, see J. E. Manson and K. A. Martin. 2001. “Clinical
practice. Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy.” N Engl
J Med. Jul 5;345(1): 34–40.
8 J. A. Cauley et al. 2001. “Effects of hormone replacement therapy
on clinical fractures and height loss: The Heart and Estrogen/Progestin
Replacement Study (HERS).” Am J Med. Apr 15;110(6): 442–450.
9 M. P. Warren et al. 2003. “Persistent osteopenia in ballet dancers
with amenorrhea and delayed menarche despite hormone therapy: A longitudinal
study.” Fertil Steril. Aug;80: 398–404.
10 J. A. Cauley et al. 2003. “Effects of estrogen plus progestin
on risk of fracture and bone mineral density: the Women’s Health
Initiative randomized trial.” JAMA. Oct 1;290(13): 1729–1738.
11 C. T. Owens. 2002. “Estrogen replacement therapy for Alzheimer
disease in postmenopausal women.” Ann Pharmacother. Jul;36(7):
1273–1276 and K. Yaffe. 1998. “Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal
women: effects on cognitive function and dementia.” JAMA. Mar
12 Conclusions from the large Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement
Study suggest that women at risk of heart disease suffer an even greater
cardiac risk by taking HRT. For low-risk women, “There is a risk
that women without coronary heart disease might experience even greater
net harm from HRT.” See J. A. Blakely. 2000. “The heart
and estrogen/progestin replacement study revisited: hormone replacement
therapy produced net harm, consistent with the observational data.”
Arch Intern Med. Oct 23;160(19): 2897–2900. Also see R. SoRelle.
2002. “Second year of HERS same as the first—no clear benefit
or harm for cardiovascular disease.” Circulation. Feb 26;105(8):
e9077–9078; T. W. Meade and M. R. Vickers. 1999. “HRT and
cardiovascular disease.” J Epidemiol Biostat. 4(3): 165–190.
13 G. A. Colditz et al. 1995.” The use of estrogens and progestins
and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.” N Engl
J Med. Jun 15;332(24): 1589–1593.
14 C. Rodriguez et al. 1995. “Estrogen replacement therapy and
fatal ovarian cancer.” Am J Epidemiol. May 1;141(9): 828–835.
15 Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators.
2002. “Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy
postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health
Initiative randomized controlled trial.” JAMA. 288: 321–333.
16 Data taken from the American College Of OB/GYN Web site (“Questions
and Answers on Hormone Therapy,” www.acog.org/from_home/publications/press_releases/nr08-30-02.cfm).
All the data were not bad for women who took Prempro, however. A 37
percent decrease in colon cancer and a 24–34 percent decrease
in bone fractures were seen as well.
17 A. L. Hersh, M. L. Stefanick, and R. S. Stafford. 2004. “National
use of postmenopausal hormone therapy: annual trends and response to
recent evidence.” JAMA. Jan 7; 291(1): 47–53; J. S. Haas
et al. 2004.” Changes in the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy
after the publication of clinical trial results.” Ann Intern Med.
Feb 3;140(3): 184–188.
18 J. T. Hargrove et al. 1989. “Menopausal hormone replacement
therapy with continuous daily oral micronized estradiol and progesterone.”
Obstet Gynecol. Apr;73(4): 606–612.
19 A. DuPont et al. 1991. “Comparative endocrinological and clinical
effects of percutaneous estradiol and oral conjugated estrogens as replacement
therapy in menopausal women.” Maturitas. Oct;13(4): 297–311.
20 K. M. Prestwood et al. 2000. “The effect of low dose micronized
17ss-estradiol on bone turnover, sex hormone levels, and side effects
in older women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.”
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Dec;85(12): 4462–4469. See also B. Ettinger
et al. 1992. “Low-dosage micronized 17 beta-estradiol prevents
bone loss in postmenopausal women.” Am J Obstet Gynecol. Feb;166(2):
21 M. C. Snabes et al. 1997. “Physiologic estradiol replacement
therapy and cardiac structure and function in normal postmenopausal
women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.”
Obstet Gynecol. 89: 332–339; G. M. C. Rosano et al. 1993. “Beneficial
effect of oestrogen on exercise induced myocardial ischemia in women
with coronary artery disease.” Lancet. 342: 133–136; C.
Haines et al. 1996. “Effect of oral estradiol on Lp(a) and other
lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
crossover study.” Arch Intern Med. 156: 886–872.
22 H. N. Hodis et al. 2003. “Hormone therapy and the progression
of coronary-artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.” N
Engl J Med. Aug 7;349(6): 535–545.
23 A. Kamada et al. 2004. “A new series of estrogen receptor modulators:
effect of alkyl substituents on receptor-binding affinity.” Chem
Pharm Bull (Tokyo). Jan;52: 79–88.
24 D. Yin et al. 2003. “Pharmacodynamics of selective androgen
receptor modulators.” J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Mar;304(3): 1334–1340.
25 E. N. Meilahn et al. 1998. “Do urinary oestrogen metabolites
predict breast cancer? Guernsey III cohort follow-up.” Br J Cancer.
26 The role of estrogen in protecting brain function is still not understood,
but it is clearly important for men as well as for women. V. Bisagno,
R. Bowman, and V. Luine. 2003. “Functional aspects of estrogen
neuroprotection.” Endocrine. Jun 1;21(1): 33–41; D. F. Swaab
et al. 2003. “Sex differences in the hypothalamus in the different
stages of human life.” Neurobiol Aging. May 1;24(Suppl 1): S1–S16,
27 A. Vincent and L. A. Fitzpatrick. 2000. “Soy isoflavones: are
they useful in menopause?” Mayo Clin Proc. Nov;75(11): 1174–1184.
28 T. Horiuchi et al. 2000. “Effect of soy protein on bone metabolism
in postmenopausal Japanese women.” Osteoporos Int. 11(8): 721–724;
Y. Somekawa et al. 2001. “Soy intake related to menopausal symptoms,
serum lipids, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Japanese women.”
Obstet Gynecol. Jan;97(1): 109–115.
29 One randomized crossover study examined the effects of three different
soy diets on 18 healthy postmenopausal women. “When compared with
baseline values, consumption of all three soy diets . . . decreased
the ratio of genotoxic:total estrogens. These data suggest that both
isoflavones and other soy constituents may exert cancer-preventative
effects in postmenopausal women by altering estrogen metabolism away
from genotoxic metabolites toward inactive metabolites.” X. Xu
et al. 2000. “Soy consumption alters endogenous estrogen metabolism
in postmenopausal women.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Aug;9:
781–786. See also L. A. Fitzpatrick. 2003. “Soy isoflavones:
hope or hype?” Maturitas. March&14;44(Suppl 1): S21–29;
T. Kishida et al. 2000. “Effect of dietary soy isoflavone aglycones
on the urinary 16alpha-to-2-hydroxyestrone ratio in C3H/HeJ mice.”
Nutr Cancer. 38(2): 209–214.
30 U.S. Soyfoods Directory; www.soyfoods.com/nutrition/isoflavoneconcentration.html.
31 F. Kronenberg and A. Fugh-Berman. 2002. “Complementary and
alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized,
controlled trials.” Ann Intern Med. Nov 19;137(10): 805–813.
32 In the mid-1990s, researchers at Johns Hopkins established a link
in animal studies between chemicals found in broccoli and protection
against cancer. Since then, a number of studies have looked at the beneficial
effects for people of cruciferous vegetables.
One study focused on why Polish women in the Midwest are more likely
to develop breast cancer than their relatives in Europe. The answer
may be in the cabbage, which is a cruciferous vegetable that the European
Poles eat. Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
“stimulated test-tube colonies of human breast-cancer cells with
estrogen, then added extracts of plain cabbage, sauerkraut, or acidified
brussels sprouts.” At higher concentrations, each extract “not
only slowed the growth of estrogen-fed cells but also blocked estrogen’s
ability to turn on a particular gene.” Though the study’s
findings do not point conclusively to the agent in the vegetables that
is at work, the findings do suggest “these foods might offer even
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35 H. B. Leonetti et al. 1999. “Transdermal progesterone cream
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36 Ibid. See also B. G. Wren et al. 2003. “Transdermal progesterone
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37 “p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is a target of genetic alternations
in many human and animal cancers. Compared to normal tissues, cancer
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39 S. Shantha et al. 2002. “Natural vaginal progesterone is associated
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40 E. Darj et al. 1993. “Liver metabolism during treatment with
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44 J. P. Heaton and A. Morales. 2001. “Andropause—a multisystem
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45 Shortly after the introduction of Proscar, Merck and Company introduced
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a 5-mg strength, as a treatment for male pattern baldness.
46 F. Debruyne et al. 2002. “Comparison of a phytotherapeutic
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47 G. S. Gerber. 2000. “Saw palmetto for the treatment of men
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48 L. B. Nieuwoudt et al. 1990. “Correlation between the macromolecular
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49 A. M. Nakhla et al. 1994. “Estradiol Causes the Rapid Accumulation
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50 B. T. Ashok et al. 2001. “Abrogation of estrogen-mediated cellular
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51 K. J. Auborn et al. 2003. “Indole-3-carbinol is a negative
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52 H. J. Jeong et al. 1999. “Inhibition of aromatase activity
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54 J. S. Bland. 2002. Nutritional Endocrinology: Breakthrough Approaches
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55 A. T. Guay et al. 2003. “Clomiphene increases free testosterone
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56 As one study concluded, “epidemiological studies provide no
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Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever by Ray Kurzweil and Terry
Grossman M.D. Rodale: 11/2004 ISBN#1-57954-954-3